FAMOUS SERBS


NIKOLA TESLA

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), an American scientist of Serbian origin, made his greatest contribution to science and the technological advance of mankind as the discovering or inventing the rotating magnetic field, the induction motor, multi-phase alternating current, the generator and a complete system for the production and distribution of electrical energy. The international SI unit for the measurement of magnetic induction, the tesla, was named after him. Tesla constructed a high frequency and current electrical generator, today known as the Tesla transformer or the Tesla coil.

IVO ANDRIĆ

Ivan 'Ivo' Andrić (9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, short story writer, and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature for his novel The bridge on the Drina.
He was born on 9 October 1892, in Travnik, in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina. His writings dealt mainly with life in his native Bosnia under the Ottoman Empire.

Andrić attended the Jesuit gymnasium in Travnik, followed by Sarajevo's gymnasium and later he studied philosophy at the Universities of Zagreb (1912 and 1918), Vienna (1913), Kraków (1914), and Graz (PhD, 1924). Because of his political activities, Andrić was imprisoned by the Austrian government during World War I (first in Maribor and later in the Doboj detention camp) alongside other pro-Yugoslav civilians.
Andric started his literary career as a poet.
Under the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia) Andrić became a civil servant, first in the Ministry of Faiths and then the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where he pursued a successful diplomatic career reaching as high as Deputy Foreign Minister. During his diplomatic service, he worked in embassy at Holy See (1920), consulates in Bucharest, Trieste and Graz (1924), consulates in Paris and Marseilles (1927), and embassy in Madrid (1928). In 1939 he was appointed ambassador in Germany. He was also a delegate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at the 19th, 21st, 23rd and 24th sessions of the League of Nations in Geneva in the period 1930–1934. His ambassadorship ended in 1941 after the German invasion of Yugoslavia. During World War II, Andrić lived quietly in Belgrade, completing three of his most famous novels which were published in 1945, including The Bridge on the Drina.
After the war, Andrić spent most of his time in his home in Belgrade and held a number of ceremonial posts in the new Communist government of Yugoslavia, and was also a member of the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country'. He donated all of the prize money for the improvement of libraries in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Following the death of his second wife, Milica Babić-Andrić, in 1968, he began reducing his public activities. In 1969 he was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and in 1972 the University of Belgrade awarded him an honorary doctorate. As time went by, he grew increasingly ill and eventually died on 13 March 1975, in Belgrade.
He was buried in the Belgrade New Cemetery, in the Alley of Distinguished Citizens.

COUNT SAVVA RAGUZINSKY

Sava Lukich Vladislavich-Raguzinsky (Russian: Са́вва Луки́ч Рагузи́нский-Владиславич; Serbian: Сава Владиславић Рагузински; 16 January 1669 – 17 June 1738) was a Serbian diplomat, count and merchant-adventurer in the service of Peter the Great who conducted important diplomatic negotiations in Constantinople, Rome and Beijing.
Sava, named after Saint Sava, was born in 1669, in the village of Jasenik near Gacko, Bosnia Eyalet, Ottoman Empire. His father, Luka Vladislavić, was a Serb landlord. The family was driven out from Gacko by the local Turks, and settled in the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik). Luka enrolled Sava in the best schools there. For higher education, Sava was sent abroad, first to theRepublic of Venice to study Italian, Latin, philosophy, law, commerce and maritime science, then, to Spain and France where he took advanced courses in international law and commerce which became a great aid to his father's merchant business in Ragusa.
A commercial project brought the young merchant to Constantinople, where, in the absence of a permanent Russian mission, he was entrusted with various tasks by the Russian foreign ministers. In 1702, he made the acquaintance of Peter the Great in Azov. In 1708, he relocated to Moscow and soon received from the Tsar the lands in Little Russia
His most lasting achievement was the Treaty of Kiakhta, which regulated relations between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire of China. Viewing the commonly agreed border as an 'everlasting demarcation line between the two empires', Vladislavich spared no effort to further trade and commerce on the border. He personally selected the location for the Russian trade factory of Kyakhta, where the district of Troitskosavsk commemorates his name. As a reward for his part in securing a favourable treaty with China and establishing the Tea Road between the two countries, he was invested with the Order of Alexander Nevsky. He also drafted a comprehensive project of financial reform and left a detailed description of the Qing Empire. In a secret memorandum (1731), Vladislavich cautioned the Russian government against ever going to war with China.
In 1722, Sava Vladislavich published his most famous work, a translation in Russian of Mavro Orbin's Il regno degli Slavi (1601; The Realm of the Slavs), which included a long passage on Kosovo. It was a tremendous sensation in Russia and the Balkans, and attracted the attention and discussion of all cultured society. It was said that 'nowhere was there a rather large library that did not have a copy of Sava Vladislavich's translation of Orbini'.

ANA JAKSIĆ GLINSKAYA – THE GRANDMOTHER OF IVAN IV THE TERRRIBLE

The Jakšić (Serbian: pl. Јакшићи / Jakšići) were a Serbian noble house that fought against the Ottoman Empire. The founder, Jakša, was a voivode (Duke) in the service of Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković, and after the fall of Serbia to the Ottomans his descendants joined the ranks of the Hungarian army, Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus titled them 'pillars of Christianity'.
Ana Jakšić, the granddaughter of the founder of Jakšić family, married a Russian prince Vasili Lvovich Glinsky,. In this marriage she gave birth to a daughter Elena who married Russian grand prince Vasili III. They had 2 sons – Ivan and Yuri. Both Grand prince Vasili III and Elena Glinskaya died while young grand prince Ivan (later Ivan the Terrible) was a child, leaving his grandmother Ana as his closest relative and his governess. She also governed the state until Ivan proclaimed himself an emperor in 1547.
She died probably after 1553 in Troitse-Sergiev monastery as a nun.
Cherishing tradition of glorious Serbian history Ana Jakšić Glinskaya brought into the Russian court
(and through the court into the whole empire) the cult of Serbian saint Sava Nemanjić. Emperor Ivan IV the Terrible himself accepted the cult of St. Sava. During his reign The Illustrated Chronicle was created (Russian: Лицевой летописный свод ), which was the largest compilation of historical information ever assembled in medieval Russia. It covers the period from the creation of the world to the year 1567. In this book there are 61 pages with about 250 miniatures dedicated to St. Sava. There are also hagiographies
about other Serbian saints in this chronicle. The fact that testifies of how developed was the cult of Serbian saints in Russian court is that in Kremlin Archangel Cathedral there are 4 images painted that don't belong to Russian rulers – besides Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus there are three Serbian saints - grand prince Stefan Nemanja, St. Sava and prince Lazar.


MIHAJLO PUPIN

Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph.D.,LL.D.(9 October 1858 – 12 March 1935), also known as Michael I. Pupin, was a Serbian and American physicist and physical chemist, proffessor at Columbia University, awarded with Yugoslav first order 'White Eagle' medal and honorary consul of Serbia in USA. He won the Pulitzer prize in 1924 with his autobiography 'From immigrant to inventor'. Pupin is best known for his numerous patents, including a means of greatly extending the range of long-distance telephone communication by placing loading coils (of wire) at predetermined intervals along the transmitting wire (known as 'pupinization'). Pupin was a founding member of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) on March 3, 1915, which later became NASA.
Pupin was rewarded with many scientific recognitions and medals, he was a member of American Academy of Sciences, Serbian Royal Academy and was an honorary PhD on 18 Universities.

MILUTIN MILANKOVIĆ

Milutin Milanković (28 May 1879 – 12 December 1958) was a Serbian mathematician, astronomer, climatologist, geophysicist,civil engineer, doctor of technology, university professor and popularizer of science. Milanković gave two fundamental contributions to global science. The first contribution is the 'Canon of the Earth’s Insolation', which characterizes the climates of all the planets of the Solar system. The second contribution is the explanation of Earth's long-term climate changes caused by changes in the position of the Earth in comparison to the Sun, now known as Milankovitch cycles. This explained the ice ages occurring in the geological past of the Earth, as well as the climate changes on the Earth which can be expected in the future. He founded planetary climatology by calculating temperatures of the upper layers of the Earth's atmosphere as well as the temperature conditions on planets of the inner Solar system, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon, as well as the depth of the atmosphere of the outer planets. He demonstrated the interrelatedness of celestial mechanics and the Earth sciences, and enabled consistent transition from celestial mechanics to the Earth sciences and transformation of descriptive sciences into exact ones.

RUĐER BOŠKOVIĆ

Roger Joseph Boscovich; (18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath from the city of Dubrovnik in the Republic of Ragusa (modern-day Croatia), who studied and lived in Italy and France where he also published many of his works.[2]
He produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy, including the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position. In 1753 he also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon.
Having Serbian father and Italian mother, and being born on the territory of modern-day Croatia, Ruđer Bošković's legacy is consequently celebrated in Croatia, Italy and Serbia.

JOVAN KARAMATA

Jovan Karamata (1902–1967) was one of the greatest Serbian mathematicians of the 20th century. He is remembered for contributions to analysis, in particular, the Tauberian theory and the theory of slowly varying functions. Karamata was one of the founders of the Mathematical Institute of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in 1946.

MEHMED PAŠA SOKOLOVIĆ – GRAND VIZIER OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Mehmed paša Sokolović (turkish: Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 1506 – 11 October 1579) was an Ottoman statesman hailing from Serbian prominent Sokolović family in the vicinity of the modern-day Rudo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Born into a Christian family, Mehmed was taken away at an early age as part of the devşirme system of Ottoman collection of Christian boys to be raised to serve as a janissary. These janissary boys were raised and educated to accept Islam and be Muslims, but were in turn offered great opportunities to excel and to rise within the Ottoman imperial system.
Mehmed-paša Sokolović rose through the ranks of the Ottoman imperial system, eventually holding positions as commander of the imperial guard (1543–1546), High Admiral of the Fleet (1546–1551), Governor-General ofRumelia (1551–1555), Third Vizier (1555–1561), Second Vizier (1561–1565), and as Grand Vizier (1565–1579, for a total of 14 years, three months, 17 days) under three sultans: Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was assassinated in 1579, ending his near 15-year rule as de facto ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
It is variously reported that Makarije Sokolović (died 1574) the Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church (Patriarchate of Peć) from 1557 to 1571 was the brother, nephew, or first cousin of Mehmed pasha Sokolović. He was the first patriarch of the restored Serbian Patriarchate, after its lapse in 1463 that resulted from the Ottoman conquest of Serbia. Grand vizier Mehmed-paša Sokolović used his influence in the Ottoman Empire to reestablish the Patriarchate of Peć.
Mehmed paša Sokolović has left numerous architecturally well known buildings in Constantinople and in Ottoman lands of his day. His most renowned endowment is the eleven-arched Višegrad bridge in his hometown of Višegrad. The building and history of the bridge is the topic of the novel The Bridge on the Drina, written by Nobel laureate Ivo Andrić.

GAVRILO PRINCIP

Gavrilo Princip (25 July 1894– 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914.
Princip and his accomplices were arrested and implicated by several members of the Serbian military, leading Austria-Hungary to issue a démarche to Serbia known as the July Ultimatum. This was used as pretext for Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia, which then led to World War I.
Princip was a Yugoslav nationalist associated with the movement Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia) which predominantly consisted of Serbs, but also Bosniaks and Croats.

KARL MALDEN

Karl Malden (born Mladen George Sekulovich; 22 March, 1912 – 1 July, 2009) was a Serbian American actor. In a career that spanned more than seven decades, he performed in such classic films as A Streetcar Named Desire, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor; On the Waterfront; and One-Eyed Jacks. Among other notable film roles were Archie Lee Meighan in Baby Doll, Zebulon Prescott in How the West Was Won, and General Omar Bradley in Patton. His best-known role, though, was on television as Lt. Mike Stone on the 1970s crime drama, The Streets of San Francisco. During the 1970s and 1980s, he was also the spokesman for American Express.

ROSE ANN VUICH

Rose Ann Vuich (c.1927 - August 30, 2001) served as a member of the California State Senate from 1977 until 1993. She was the first female member of the California State Senate. The Rose Anne Vuich Ethical Leadership Award is presented annually by the Kenneth L. Maddy Institute at California State University, Fresno to a person who has demonstrated 'integrity, strength of character, exemplary ethical behavior, ability to build consensus, serving the public interest and vision for enhancing the community.'
The interchange of State Route 41 and State Route 180 in Fresno, California is named the Rose Ann Vuich Interchange, and in 2006, Hearing Room 2040 at the California State Capitol was renamed the Rose Ann Vuich Hearing Room.