FOLKLORE



NATIONAL COSTUME

Among the creative aspects of the culture of the Serbian nation, traditional costumes occupy one of the most important places because of their role in everyday life, their significance for ethnic identity, and their artistic and aesthetic value. Serbian folk costumes, like any traditional dress of a nation or culture, has been lost and is either worn by the artists on the cultural festivals or by the folk performers on the celebrations of the national importance.
It is popular in the world for its tremendous decoration and unique embroidery. It is characterised by a great diversity in form and decoration. This variety and multitude of decorations is present in both men's and women's costumes.
Each region had its own special form of dress. According to the way a person was dressed, one could distinguish not only where they were from, but also of which nationality they were in multi-ethnic milieus.
These traditional dresses included long tunic shirts, trousers, skirts, sleeveless coats called jeleks, waist coats, jubun or zubun, socks and belts etc.

OPANCI 
Opanci was the accustomed foot wear of the traditional dress of Serbia. They are made of leader by braiding thin leather laces and are very light. The Opanci are considered a national symbol of Serbia, and the traditional peasant footwear for people in the Balkan region. They are also one of the most genuine and best-selling souvenirs of Serbia.

ŠAJKAČA
Šajkača cap is easily recognisable by its design; the top looks like the letter V or like the bottom of a boat (viewed from above). It was derived from the 18th-century military cap part of the uniform worn by the Šajkaši, river troops guarding Belgrade, Danube and Sava against the Ottoman Empire, during the 16th- to 19th centuries. It subsequently spread throughout the civilian population of central Serbia, and in the 19th century it became an official part of the Serbian military uniform.

JELEK
Jelek is a special vest worn on top of the white shirt, very short and tight, with most often golden thread embroidery. Usually was made of materials such as plush, cloth and scarf, on which to add various bindings, ornaments to make them look more beautiful, richer and retain their authenticity.

NATIONAL DANCE AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

KOLO
It is Serbian national dance performed by group of people holding each other's hands or having their hands around each other's waists forming a circle (hence the name). The basic steps are easy to learn, but experienced dancers dance kolo with great virtuosity due to different ornamental elements they add, such as syncopated steps. Each region has at least one unique kolo; it is difficult to master the dance and even most experienced dancers cannot master all of them. Kolo may be performed in a closed circle, a single chain or in two parallel lines. Both men and women dance together, however some dances require only men to dance and some dances are only for women. The music is generally fast paced.

FRULA
A musical instrument resembling a small flute or a fife. Once upon a time they were made and played by shepherds who mostly played for themselves while watching over the herd.
The production of frula is a real work of art, making each of them a unique masterpiece. It is being carved and painted with different ornaments. It has six holes in front and one on the back side, by which it is possible to make seven tones in two octaves. No matter the ultimate simplicity of this instrument numerous players in Serbia reach the astonishing artificial level and virtuosity.

GUSLE
A single-corded musical instrument. The instrument is always accompanied by singing; musical folklore, specifically epic poetry. The gusle player (guslar) holds the instrument vertically between his knees, with the left hand fingers on the strings. The strings are never pressed to the neck, giving a harmonic and unique sound.
There are records of an instrument named gusle (гоусли) being played at the court of the 13th-century Serbian King Stefan Nemanjić, but it is not certain whether the term was used in its present-day meaning or it denoted some other kind of string instrument. 
The gusle should not be confused with the Russian gusli, which is a psaltery-like instrument; nor with the Czech term for violin, housle.
The gusle consists of a wooden sound box, the maple being considered as the best material (therefore often the instrument is referred to as 'gusle javorove' - maple gusle), covered with an animal skin and a neck with an intricately carved head. A bow is pulled over the string/s (made of horsetail), creating a dramatic and sharp sound, expressive and difficult to master. The string is made of thirty horsehairs.
The gusle has played a significant role in the history of Serbian epic poetry because of its association with the centuries old patriotic oral legacy. Most of the epics are about the era of the Ottoman occupation and the struggle for the liberation from it. With the efforts of ethnographer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, many of these epics have been collected and published in books in the first half of the 19th century. At the beginning and in the middle of the nineteenth century, the first systematic collections of Serbian folk songs, tales, riddles and proverbs were published. They had been collected by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić 'fresh from the lips of the people'. Serbian folk poetry was given a marvelous reception, as it appeared in Europe when romanticism was in full bloom. This poetry, which appeared in Karadžić's anthological collections, met the 'expectations' of the sophisticated European audience, becoming a living confirmation of Herder's and Grimm's ideas about the oral tradition. Jacob Grimm began to learn Serbian so that he could read the poems in the original. He wrote minute analyses of each new volume of Serbian folk songs. He ranked them as being equal to the Song of Songs, as did Goethe somewhat later. Thanks to Grimm, moreover to the initiatives of the well-educated and wise Slovene Jerner Kopitar (the censor for Slavic books, Karadžić's counselor and protector), Serbian folk literature found its place in the literature of the world.

TRUMPET- Dragačevo Assembly of Trumpet Players
The sound of the trumpet traditionally accompanies every major event in Serbia's rural and small-town life: births, baptisms, weddings, Slavas {family patron saint day}, farewell parties for those joining military service, state and church festivals, harvesting, reaping, and also departing this world. Appropriate music is played on these occasions, thus preserving the spirit of the existing tradition. The traditional Dragačevo trumpet - its cult kept alive for nearly two centuries regardless of political and social considerations - has with time become world-renowned. It is owing to the trumpet that the name of Serbia has resounded worldwide, in all the continents. The virtuoso music performers, the trumpet players to the paradox and make the story more authentic - are for the most part fully self-taught. They play by ear and quite spontaneously, relying on their musical memory; they play from the heart and soul, and their music reaches out to listeners precisely for this quality. The Guča Assembly of Trumpet Players continues to grow year after year: today, this musical feast of recognizable national skills is more popular, more diverse and bigger than ever before. The first Dragačevo Assembly of Trumpet Players was held on October 16, 1961. it was a very modest Assembly. However, the Assembly gradually grew and expanded its, one might say, magical influence, and over the past ten or so years it grew to be the best known event of this kind extending uninterruptedly for 43 years and attracting guests and musicians alike from every continent. Trumpet players and folk song and dance groups from around the world deem it a great honor to be invited to the Assembly, and the number of visitors increases with each coming year.

HANDIWORK

EMBROIDERY
The embroidery was fabulously created by the craftsmen normally on the shirts, aprons and socks in the brilliant red color. The floral patterns were also commonly found on these aprons. Allso, the embroidery is done on tablecloths and linen.

KNITTING
Knitting is almost forgotten trade. It is also done in bright colours and in floral patterns. Its uniqueness is represented by authentic designs, excellent hand-knitting skills and the use of high quality wool It has been recognised all over the world as a timeless fashion. Sirogojno is a village in Serbia located on Mt. Zlatibor. Sirogojno offers a variety of interesting activities including fashion shows of knitwear handmade by women living on Mt. Zlatibor, evenings by the fire, and a summer school for learning traditional crafts such as pottery, knitting, mosaic-making, and graphic skills.

PIROT CARPET
Pirot carpet (Serbian: Пиротски ћилим, Pirotski ćilim) refers to a variety of flat tapestry-woven carpets or rugs traditionally produced in Pirot, a town in southeastern Serbia. Pirot kilims with some 122 ornaments and 96 different types have been protected by geographical indication in 2002. They are one of the most important traditional handicrafts in Serbia. In the late 19th century and up to the Second World War, Pirot kilims have been frequently used as insignia of Serbian and Yugoslav royalty. This tradition was revived in 2011 when Pirot kilims were reintroduced for state ceremonies in Serbia.


FOLK ARCHITECTURE

Folk, or vernacular architecture, as opposed to “polite architecture”, is based on craftsmanship that has been learned through practice. It is an architecture born of a particular environment and traditional skills and is dependent on materials from the immediate natural environment, just as the construction design and form is dependent on terrain and climate.
The most widespread examples of folk architecture date to the period around the turn of the 20th century. This was a time when industry was developing and when there was widespread migration to the towns for work, an increase in the transfer of influences to rural construction and greater use of industrial materials, and when the culture of living was undergoing change.
The best folk architects were the pečalbari, migrant workers coming from undeveloped regions with their specialised teams of workmen, such as the Crnotravci from the Vlasina region, after whom, in time, all workmen from the south and southeast of Serbia were named.

TRŠIĆ
The village of Tršić is 9 km south-east of Loznica and is the birthplace Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, creator of the modern Serbian Cyrillic alphabet. The village comprises anethnographic park with memorial house, examples of folk architecture and visitor facilities.
In creating the ethnic village, special care was taken to permanently record and safeguard the memory of Vuk and his work, as well as preserve the natural environment and features of the area. In 1933 a memorial house was raised on the spot where the family home of Vuk Karadžić stood – a two-part log cabin with cellar and a steep roof covered in wood shingles.
In 1964, to mark the 100th anniversary of Vuk’s death, an amphitheatre with stage was built, to be used for staging the Vuk’s Gathering (Vukov Sabor) and Vuk’s Gathering for Children, and in 1987 work on Tršić was completed so that it could serve as a cultural and historical monument in its entirety.